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Apr 20, (a) KITAB-UL-HIND was written by AL-BIRUNI in Arabic language KITAB-UL- HIND is simple and lucid and a voluminous text divided into 80 chapters on. Sep 30, Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic. Kitab Tarikh Al-Hind and Aims of Writing it. Al-Biruni’s Kitab-ul-Hind is simple and lucid. It is divided. were incorporated in Mahmud’s Indian army; and Al- beruni—what Geography. Kitab-almanshurdt. marching to Hind or India proper we start from the.

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Even after ghazni, we had the rajputs under chauhans who had a flourishing empire and defeated ghazni the first time, by the virtue of berunl, not mental walls as pointed by you.

Student was kind enough to check my English.

Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings. Ancient Indian geographical concepts and information; 2. He did not hijd on about deeds that each one carried out during their reign, which keeps in line with Al-Biruni’s mission to try to stay away from political histories. Before, one or two foreigners could enter [Kashmir], especially Jews. His own concepts and information.

Journal for the History of Astronomy. No such detailed and beguni account of the caste system as it prevailed in early medieval India is available in any other non-Indian source. The relationship has been characterised as tumultuous, with Al-Biruni generally feeling neglected and devoid of any state support. The Megalithic monuments reveal a great variation in their forms and structure, yet they represent, in the Indian context, a homogeneous culture dominated by two key elements- a use of iron tools and weapons and, b kitxb with a polished and well-fired pottery called Black and Red Ware.

Views Read Edit View history. In kotab sense, the writers contributed to create sultans’ best image at the time. International Journal of Sciences. He records with a fair degree of accuracy, the date of the conquest of Somnath by Sultan Mahmud, and also noted its exact location and the legend behind the building of the temple. He was familiar with translations and kitqb of Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit texts into Arabic.


Bīrūnī as a source for the study of Indian culture and history | Noemie Verdon –

They are haughty, foolishly vain, self-conceited, and stolid. Kitab al-Kimya Kitab al-Sab’een Picatrix.

My book is nothing but a simple historic record of facts. He had no direct knowledge of Greek but he was well acquainted with the works of Plato and other Greek masters. The most important contribution of Al-Beruni to physical geography was his concept of seas, and particularly his theory about the sea route between the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic, south of the mountain of the moon, the traditional source of the Nile in Africa, a concept which was later adopted by European adventurers and travellers who desired to find a route between India and Europe.

As Al-Beruni was born outside the city in a suburban area he was given epithet of Al-Beruni. He takes an important note of the fact that most of the festivals are celebrated by women and children only. Sachau, 67 class of people called Hadi, Doma DombaChandala and Badhatau are also mentioned as apart from any guild or caste and generally occupied with dirty work like manual scavenging and cleaning. Biruni documented everything about India just as it happened.

Indeed, it is possible to draw out from the Kitab al-Hind how he obtained his information.

Criticisms To Al-Beruni the Hindus were excellent philosophers, good mathematicians and wl, though [out of a certain self-confidence] he believes himself to be superior to them, and disdains to be put on a level with them. Muslim Perceptions of Other Religions: Promotion of scholarship was essential for rulers at that time. This7 berini the reason why their [different] sciences vanished from the conquered boundaries and retired towards unreachable8 [places], such as Kashmir,9 Varanasi and the like [ The Making of the Indo-Islamic World.

He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and encouraged all scholars to work on their research.

Through The Eyes Of Travellers

An outline of his Life and Work A. He discusses the origin of the four varna Chatuh-varna system in the basis of the Purusha-Sukta hyms. He noted that in ancient Persia, four social categories were recognized a knights and princes; b monks, fire-priests c lawyers, physicians, astronomers and other scientists; and d peasants and artisans.

He was aware of these problems so Al-Biruni depended almost exclusively on the works of Brahmanas, often citing passages from the Vedas, the Puranas, Bhagavad Gitathe works of Patanjali, the Manusmritietc. They allow nails to grow long, glorifying their idleness, since they do not use them for any work.


During his stay at Ghazni, he must have had greater opportunities of pursuing his studies on India. In his major extant astronomical work, the Mas’ud CanonBiruni utilizes his observational data to disprove Ptolemy’s immobile solar apogee. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma’munids, he made peace with the latter who then ruled Khwarezm.

So he ordered to senddirham, as well as similar22 gifts to Kashmir, for the distribution among those interested in the book of his master. It was in Ghazni that Al-Biruni developed an interest in India. Moreover, the Punjab with its large majority of the Hindus had become a part of the Ghaznavid empire. Though Islam came to India in the eighth century from the Arabian Peninsula, it was then limited to certain areas in Sindh only. Babylonian mathematics Greek mathematics Indian mathematics.

The Saljuq and Mongol Periods.

Al-Biruni tried to explain the caste system by looking for parallels in other societies. Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic although he wrote one of his masterpieces, the Kitab al-Tafhim apparently in both Persian and Arabic, showing his mastery over both languages.

Were they popular only in some local areas? He extensively quotes from vast corpus of Sanskrit literature, like Patanjali, Gita, Puranas, Samkhya philosophy etc. Chorasmian, the original Iranian language of Chorasmia, is attested at two stages of its development.

You claim Indian society was moribund and what not at that time but your claim is questionable. Therefore, the word Kashmir here stands for the Kashmir Valley. You are commenting using your WordPress. The book does not limit itself to tedious records of battle because Al-Biruni found the social culture to be more important. They refused to acknowledge it and 38 Sachau’s Manuscript: