Kaplan on Demonstratives. Demonstratives, Indexicals, Pure Indexicals. The best way to start is to get clear on Kaplan’s terminology. Indexicals. Indexicals are words whose meaning depends on context. Kaplan distinguishes between pure indexicals (e.g. I, here, now) and true demonstratives (e.g. that. had written out the formal semantics for my Logic of Demonstratives. David Kaplan is writing at 10 A.M. on 3/26/77, or (ii) the ‘proposition’ that David. Kaplan .
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Indexicals (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
In fact, however, the person that John sees in the mirror is himself. Nearly all semantic theorists would agree that the list of simple demonstratuves given in section 1.
An indexical is, roughly speaking, a linguistic expression whose reference can shift from context to context. Thus, we use the context of an utterance pre-semantically in order to determine the structure and conventional meanings maplan by the speaker of the utterance. Propositional AttitudesDeomnstratives Which parameter does the modal operator shift?
Is this property a part of the content of the entire complex demonstrative? Just as sentences have words as parts or constituents, so propositions have individuals, properties, and relations as parts or constituents. We saw above that it is valid. We shall, however, try to avoid discussing the semantics of belief ascriptions.
So there are three words in the sentence, but there are five occurrences of words. Rigid Designation Relative to a Context: When Gail utters heshe may simultaneously 1 intend to refer to Hal, 2 intend to refer to the man she sees, and 3 intend to refers to the man to whom others are referring with he. Susanna Schellenberg – – Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 93 1: King defends an elaborate theory of the quantificational meanings of complex demonstratives, and shows how this theory accommodates a wide range demonstrativds linguistic data.
Consequently, Kaplan b, p. Kripke and others take this semantic feature of proper names to be a major objection to the analysis, inspired by Frege and Russell, of proper names as definite descriptions in Fregean terms, a definite description gives the sense of a proper name.
Demonstratives and Indexicals | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Added Mar 19, reference on p. See the entries on Gottlob Frege and propositional attitude reports. Naming and NecessityCambridge, MA: As we noted in the introduction, however, there are also context-sensitive expressions for which these basic features of context are not sufficient to uniquely determine a content relative to a context.
After circling the store, John returns to the spot where he first spotted the messy shopper. If this is correct, and the objection currently under consideration holds, then the traditional syllogism 39 is invalid:.
A speaker who uses a demonstrative may have several intentions: Philosophical Studies An occurrence of a word or phrase e within a larger phrase E may be thought of as a state of affairs: Similarly for the sentence I live in Chicago.
Theories of indexical belief can also have important implications for the semantics of indexicals. The first is that sentences have truth values relative to contexts and worlds.
But some theorists instead describe indexicality in terms of expressions varying in reference or content relative to utterances or other sorts of speech acts, such as assertions. Suppose that he sees the back of his shirt in a mirror, but does not realize that he is viewing his own shirt.
Demonstratives and Indexicals
Kaplan a presents an elaborate logic of indexicals. Many theorists who work on demonstratives and anaphora emphasize their similarities to variables.
Below is a list of types of expressions for which contextualist theories have been proposed, along with some discussion. Secondary Qualities and Indexical ThoughtOxford: The pronouns in 1 — 2 would typically be used as indexicals in utterances of 1 — 2 that are accompanied by pointing gestures. The second proposition is not the negation of the first, so John is perfectly rational to believe both. Its content is some type of structured entity that has various properties and relations as constituents, such as the property of being a person, the relation of inventing, and so on.
Then 23 is true relative to c the content of 23 relative to c is true at the circumstance of evaluation c Wbut 23 is not true relative to c and w because the content of 23 relative to c is not true at the circumstance of evaluation w.
Kaplan afor instance, distinguishes between pure indexicals and true demonstratives. But they say that kapllan relation is mediated by a third entity. dempnstratives
In this way, this treatment of demonstratives addresses the problem of maplan occurrences of demonstratives by avoiding it altogether. She picked up a pencil.
Themes from KaplanOxford: The Content of a singular term, with respect to a structure and context, is also an appropriate intension. The underlying, natural idea is that if Saul Kripke utters 11the sentence, as Saul Kripke has used itis true in virtue of two facts: