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Ebers–Moll model for an NPN transistor. mode are well modeled by an approximation to the Ebers–Moll model. Ebers and Moll created a model between the current and voltages in the transistor terminals. This model is knowned as the Ebers Moll model. The Ebers-Moll model is an ideal model for a bipolar transistor, which can be used, in the forward active mode of.

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BJTs are manufactured in two types, NPN and PNP, and are available as individual components, or fabricated in integrated circuitsoften in large numbers. The electrical resistivity of doped silicon, like other semiconductors, has a negative temperature coefficientmeaning that it conducts more current at higher temperatures.

Microelectronic Circuits, second ed. These have been addressed in various more advanced models: Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.

The Art of Electronics 2nd ed. In analog circuit design, the current-control view is sometimes used because it is approximately linear.

Ebers-moll model of transistor

The Ebers-Moll model is an ideal model for a bipolar transistor, which can be used, in the forward active mode of operation, in the reverse active mode, in saturation and in cut-off. Ebers—Moll model for a PNP transistor. The current equations derived above is interpreted in terms of a model shown in the figure. Radiation causes a buildup of ‘defects’ in the base region that act as recombination centers.

The quasi-neutral region width in the emitter is 1 m m and 0.

In the discussion below, focus is on the NPN bipolar transistor. Compact Models of Bipolar Junction Transistors, pp. Because base—emitter tgansistor varies as the logarithm of the base—emitter and collector—emitter currents, a BJT can also be used to compute logarithms and anti-logarithms. An NPN transistor comprises two semiconductor junctions that share a thin p-doped region, ebets a PNP transistor comprises two semiconductor junctions that share a thin n-doped region.

By convention, the direction of current on diagrams is shown as the direction that a positive charge would move.

Chapter 5: Bipolar Junction Transistors

In active mode, the electric field existing between base and collector caused by V CE will cause the majority of these electrons to cross the upper P-N junction into the collector to form the collector current I C. The three main BJT amplifier topologies are:. To minimize the fraction of carriers that recombine before reaching the collector—base junction, the transistor’s base region must be thin enough that carriers can diffuse across it in much less time than the semiconductor’s minority-carrier lifetime.


For the specific case where the base-emitter and base-collector voltage are the same and the base doping is uniform, there can be no minority carrier diffusion in the base so that:.

The minority-carrier distribution in the quasi-neutral regions of the bipolar transistor, as shown in Figure 5. Finally, there is the reverse active mode of operation.

The collector—emitter current can be viewed as being controlled by the base—emitter current current controlor by the base—emitter voltage voltage control. Input and output characteristics for a common-base silicon transistor amplifier.

When a transistor is used at higher frequencies, the fundamental limitation is the time it takes the carriers to diffuse across the base region Two techniques are used to reduce the turn-off delay: In this article, current arrows are shown in the conventional direction, but labels for the movement of holes and electrons show their actual direction inside the transistor. The collector—base junction is reverse biased in normal operation.

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Ebers-moll model of transistor | ECE Tutorials

Therefore, the base-collector junction is also forward biased. A Evers clamp can prevent modell transistor from heavily saturating, which reduces the amount of charge stored in the base and thus improves switching time.

That is, a PNP transistor is “on” when its base is pulled low relative to the emitter. Semiconductor Device Modeling with Spice. Typically, the emitter region is heavily doped compared to the other two layers, whereas the majority charge carrier concentrations in base and collector layers are about the same collector doping is typically ten times lighter than base doping [2].

If the emitter-base junction is reverse biased into avalanche or Zener mode and charge flows for a short period of time, the current gain of the BJT will be permanently degraded. Capital letters used in the subscript indicate that h Trqnsistor refers to a direct current circuit. The Ebers-Moll model describes trasistor of these bias modes.


In the more traditional BJT, also referred to as homojunction BJT, the efficiency of carrier injection from the emitter to the base is primarily determined by the doping ratio between the emitter eberw base, which means eberz base must be lightly doped to obtain ebrs injection efficiency, making its resistance relatively high. Each semiconductor region is connected to a terminal, appropriately labeled: This allows BJTs to be used as amplifiers or switches, giving them wide applicability in electronic equipment, including computers, televisions, mobile phones, audio amplifiers, industrial control, and radio transmitters.

This is called conventional current. In typical operation, the base—emitter junction is forward-biasedwhich means that the p-doped side of the junction is at a more positive potential than the n-doped side, and the base—collector junction is reverse-biased. The thermal runaway process associated with secondary breakdown, once triggered, occurs almost instantly and may catastrophically damage the transistor package. The collector current in a BJT when operated in normal mode is given as.

The regions of a BJT are called emittercollectorand base.

Bipolar junction transistor – Wikipedia

While the forward active mode of operation is the most useful bias mode when using a bipolar junction transistor as an amplifier, one cannot ignore the other bias modes especially when using the device as a digital switch.

In this mode, the transistor has an emitter efficiency and base transport factor as described by equations 5. BJTs can be thought of as voltage-controlled current sourcesbut are more simply characterized as current-controlled current sources, or current amplifiers, due to the low impedance at the base.

The improved injection of carriers into the base allows the base to have a higher doping level, resulting in lower resistance to access the base electrode. As well, as the base is lightly doped in comparison to the emitter and collector regionsrecombination rates are low, permitting more carriers to diffuse across the base region.

It is typically greater than 50 for small-signal transistors, but can be smaller in transistors designed for high-power applications.