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Shaka is well known for the many military, social, cultural and political reforms he used to create his highly organized and centralised Zulu state. At the time KwaZulu-Natal was populated by dozens of small Zulu-speaking clans. This article needs additional citations for verification. The floor of both types is compressed earth. The most important differences are the strongly deviating languages, although both are Southern Bantu languagesand the different settlement types and relationships.

The predominant indigenous population around the Cape was made up of Khoisan peoples. The two language groups have diverged and differ on certain key aspects especially in the sound systems. When the early Portuguese sailors cf.

Until very recently, Bantu-speaking communities were often divided into different clansnot around national federationsbut independent groups from some hundreds to thousands of individuals.

By he had conquered a huge empire covering a vast area from the sea in the east to the Drakensberg mountains in the west, and from the Pongola River in the north to the Bashee river in the south, exansao far from the modern day town of East London. In bamtu clans the eldest son inherited the office of his father. The smallest unit of the political organizational structure was the householdor kraalconsisting of a man, woman or women, and their children, as well as other relatives living in the same household.

Whereas previous battles had been limited to relatively minor encounters, Shaka introduced the more deadly stabbing spear to replace the throwing spear, military encirclement to replace allowed retreat of the enemy, and the total destruction of lands to remove any means of sustenance for the enemy.


The people were divided into different clans or tribes which had their own functions, laws, and language. This repeated until the last brother died.

By many accounts Shaka used ruthless military force against his opponents, often adopting a scorched earth policy to destroy or displace civilian populations.

Expansqo Shaka acceded to the Zulu throne at that stage the Zulu were merely one of the many clans. Retrieved from ” https: As the southern groups of Bantu speakers migrated southwards two main groups emerged, the Hantu XhosaZuluNdebeleand Swaziwho occupied the eastern coastal plains, and the Sotho—Tswanawho lived on the interior plateau.

A cylindrical wall is formed out of vertical posts, which is sealed with mud and cow dung. The diet consisted of corn introduced from South-East Asiameat mostly wild game, boar, and beefvegetables, milkwater and grain beer.

Firstly, as the Boers moved north inland from the Cape they encountered the Vantu, the Basotho, and the Tswana. Borders were natural features such as rivers or mountains, which were not by any means fixed. However, “Bantu” is used without pejorative connotations in other parts of Africa. In some clans the office was left to the oldest brother of the deceased chief, and after his death again the next oldest brother.

Likewise taboo was the meat of some birdslike owlscrows and vulturesas well as the flesh of certain totem animals.

Língua portuguesa em África – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

Except with the Tsonga and partially the Mpondofishing was of surprisingly little importance. This page was last edited on abntu Julyat Traditionally, communities live in two different types of houses. Households which lived in the same valley or on the same hill in a village were also an organizational unit, managed by a sub-chief.

There were a number of taboos regarding the consumption expwnsao meat. Shaka integrated defeated clans into the Zulu, on a basis of full equality, with promotions in the army and civil service being a matter of merit rather than circumstance of birth.


He could be criticized both by advisors as well as by his people, and compensation could be demanded. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

South Africa’s Bantu-speaking communities are roughly classified into four main groups: At some stage after tertiary dispersal period a settlement at Great Zimbabwe was established as the capital of a trading empire. The alliance under his leadership survived Zwide’s first assault at the Battle of Gqokli Hill.

Bantu-speaking peoples of South Africa. Although the leader had much power, he was not above the law. Their food acquisition was primarily limited to agriculture and hunting ; generally the women were responsible for agriculture and the men drew for the hunt.

Lwanga-Lunyiigo, Samwiri

These are divided as follows this list is not exhaustive:. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. The more powerful and more influential a chieftain was, the lesser the influence of his people. The term Bantu is derived from the word for “people” common to many of the Bantu languages.

After the death of the Mthethwa king Dingiswayo aroundat the hands of Zwidethe king of the Ndwandwe, Shaka assumed leadership of the entire Mthethwa alliance. Within a relatively short period of time he had conquered his neighboring clans and had forged the Zulu into the most important ally of the large Mthethwa clan, which was in competition with the Ndwandwe clan for domination of the northern part bnatu modern-day KwaZulu-Natal. The chief was surrounded with a number of trusted friends or advisors, usually relatives like uncles and brothers, rather than influential headmen or personal friends.

The degree of the democracy depended on the strength of the chieftain. Around this time there is evidence expansaoo coastal trading with Arabs, with the South East Asian region, and even with China.