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Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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In evaluating the total magnitude of dissonance one must take account of both dissonances and consonances. A rating of the amount carlsmitg time in the discussion that the S spent discussing the tasks as opposed to going off into irrelevant things.

This study consisted of two experiments. Add to my courses. The difference between the One Dollar and Twenty Dollar conditions is significant at the.

They choose among the available experiments by signing their names on a sheet posted on ccarlsmith bulletin board which states the nature of the experiment.

Half of the participants were asked to make the recording, while the other half was asked to make the counter statement. Forced compliance occurs when an individual performs an action that is inconsistent with his or her beliefs.

Take it with you wherever you go. These S s were hired for twenty dollars to do the same thing.

Cognitive Dissonance

A rating of how persuasive and convincing the S was in what he said and the way in which he said it. In the other two conditions, however, the S s told someone festingger these tasks were interesting and enjoyab1e. A person festingef convince themself that it is better to “live for today” than to “save for tomorrow. An internet resource developed by Christopher D. When they were asked to lie about how they truly feel about the task, they force themselves to feel what they were induced to feel and express.

Forced compliance theory

There remain, for analysis, 20 S s in each of the thee conditions. The experimenter explained that the experiment itself usually took a little over an hour to conduct but was scheduled for two hours giving some people from Introductory Psychology an opportunity to interview some of the participants afterwards. A scenario was presented where the experimenter’s usual associate had been unable to attend for an upcoming session where a positive introduction to the tasks was to be given to the next subject.


Is it a perception as ‘cognitive’ suggestsor a feeling, or a feeling about a perception? Five S s three in the One Dollar and two in the Twenty Dollar condition indicated in the interview that they were suspicious about having been paid to tell the girl the experiment was fun and suspected that that was the real purpose of the experiment.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory | Simply Psychology

Method Female participants were informed they would be helping out in a study funded by several manufacturers. The difference between the One and Twenty Dollar conditions reaches the.

A positive answer was given and the experimenter again thanked the subject and left.

Carlsmith conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. Because of the desirability of investigating this possible alternative explanation, we recorded on a tape recorder gestinger conversation between each S and the girl. Change one or more of the attitudes, behavior, beliefs, etc.

From this point on they diverged somewhat. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58 2 These tasks, which the researchers intended to seem boring and meaningless, typically consisted of an initial half-hour of putting 12 spools onto a tray, emptying the tray, refilling it fedtinger spools, and so on, using one hand only. Specifically, they showed that if a person is forced to improvise a speech supporting a point of view with which he disagrees, his private opinion moves toward the position advocated in the speech.

Since these derivations are stated in detail by FestingerCh. From our point of view the experiment had hardly started. This produces a feeling of mental discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or carksmith to reduce the discomfort and restore balance.

European Journal of Social Psychology. The behavior can’t be changed, since it was already in the past, so dissonance will need to be reduced by re-evaluating their attitude to what they have done. After reading the reports about the various products, individuals rated the products again.

However, there is a problem from a scientific point of view, because we cannot physically observe cognitive dissonanceand therefore we cannot objectively measure it re: Any hesitancy on the part of the subject was eroded by further encouragement from the experimenter. In the study, undergraduate students of Introductory Psychology at Stanford University were asked to take part of a series of experiments.


The subjects were then again interviewed afterwards and were asked to rate four different areas of the experiment. Fesfinger reason for doing it, theoretically, was to make it easier for anyone who wanted to persuade himself that the tasks had been, indeed, enjoyable. From this point on, the procedure for all three conditions was once more identical. He was told to use one hand and to work at his own speed.

The content of what the S said after the girl made the above-mentioned remark. The S s were given a very good reason, in addition to being paid, for saying what they did to the waiting girl. We felt it was important to show that the effect was not a completely general one festinged was specific to the content of the dissonance which was created. Hence, the alternative explanation discussed above cannot account for festinfer findings.

Hence, one would expect the results on this question to be very similar to the results on “how enjoyable the tasks were” but weaker. Don’t have time for it all now?

Classics in the History of Psychology — Festinger & Carlsmith ()

The experimenter again brought up the possibility of someone from Introductory Psychology wanting to interview the subject. After performing the tasks, each of the subjects was then interviewed regarding how enjoyable the tasks were to him. In Festinger and Carlsmith’s classic study, undergraduate students of Introductory Psychology at Stanford University were asked, during the first week of the course, to take part of a series of cwrlsmith.