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Psychologist James J. Gibson originally introduced the term “affordance” in his article ‘The Theory of Affordances’, which he subsequently. Download Citation on ResearchGate | The Theory of Affordances Chapt | James J Gibson introduced for the first time the word “affordances” in this paper. }. Summary: Affordance theory states that the world is perceived not only in terms of object shapes and spatial relationships but also in terms of.

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James J. Gibson – Wikipedia

Gibson proposes that the environment consists of affordances such terrain, water, vegetation, etc. Furthermore, the ambient array includes invariants such as shadows, texture, color, convergence, symmetry and layout that determine what is perceived.

According to Gibson, perception is a direct consequence of the properties of the environment and does not involve any form of sensory processing. Information pickup theory stresses that perception requires an active organism.


The act of perception depends upon an interaction between the organism and the environment. All perceptions are made in reference to body position and functions proprioception. Awareness of the environment derives from how it reacts to our movements.

Information pickup theory opposes most traditional theories of cognition that assume past experience plays a dominant role in perceiving. Information pickup theory is intended as a general theory of perception, although it has been developed most completely for the visual system.


Gibson discusses the implications of the theory for still and motion picture research. Neisser presents a theory of cognition that is strongly influenced by Gibson.

In other words, it is the invariants of terrain and sky that determine perception while flying, not sensory processing per se. Therefore, training sequences and materials for pilots should always include this kind of information.

Last Updated November 30th, Application Information pickup theory is affprdances as a general theory of perception, although it has been developed most completely for the visual system.


Principles To facilitate perception, realistic environmental settings should be used in instructional materials. Since perception is an active process, the individual should have an unconstrained learning environment.

Instruction should emphasize the stimulus characteristics that provide perceptual cues. The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. The theory of affordances. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception.